Frozen Shoulder

Frozen shoulder, also known as adhesive capsulitis, is a common cause of shoulder pain and stiffness that commonly affects patients above the age of 40. A thin capsule usually covers the shoulder joint. When this capsule gets inflamed, it causes pain, and the shoulder becomes stiff. This usually resolves with time.

Causes  |  Symptoms  |  Treatment Options

What Causes a Frozen Shoulder?

As mentioned above, the shoulder joint is covered by a thin capsule of connective tissue. When this connective tissue tightens and thickens, it restricts the movement of your shoulder. This is what causes a frozen shoulder.

Most commonly, it is a secondary result of underlying shoulder injuries such as shoulder impingement, rotator cuff injury, shoulder dislocation, or SLAP tear.

This shoulder condition also tends to occur in people who have recently suffered a shoulder fracture or in cases where the arm has had to be immobilised.

Additionally, the condition is also seen in patients with hormonal problems like diabetes and thyroid issues, heart problems like heart attack and neurological problems like stroke.

What are the Symptoms of a Frozen Shoulder?

Frozen shoulder tends to develop in stages – freezing, frozen, and thawing. It starts with a pain that is felt when you move your arm, develops into stiffness, and then slowly, your range of movement should improve.

If you are suffering from this condition, you may experience these symptoms:

  • Stiffness or a dull ache and pain
  • Pain has lasted months
  • Pain reaching the upper arm

Frozen Shoulder Treatment

Typically, treatment plans are non-surgical. Doctors will usually recommend a non-surgical treatment plan to alleviate your pain. However, in a small percentage of cases, you may require surgery.


Non-surgical treatment may involve the injection of corticosteroids that help reduce the inflammation. You may also be prescribed numbing medications to ease the pain. A range of exercises that help with your range of movement may also be recommended.


Surgery is done arthroscopically. During surgery, the inflamed and thickened joint capsule is cut to allow you to move your shoulder freely. Often, other shoulder problems like impingement or rotator cuff tears that have resulted in this condition will be addressed during the surgery.